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Hypertension Nursing Care Plan

Hypertension:

It is used to describe high blood pressure. When readings measured repeatedly are more than 140/90 mmHg, it is referred to as hypertension. It is divided into two types: primary, in which the source is unknown, and secondary, due to some problem like renal disease or heart problem.

Classification of hypertension:

  • Normal Blood Pressure: Lower than 120/ 80
  • Prehypertension: 120-139/80-89
  • Stage 1 Hypertension: 140-159/90-99
  • Stage 2 Hypertension: 160+/100+

What are the causes of hypertension?

Hypertension can occur due to multiple reasons as follow:

  • Being overweight or obese
  • Smoking
  • Genetics/family history of hypertension
  • A diet high in salt
  • Consuming more than 1-2 alcoholic drinks a day
  • Stress
  • Old age
  • Lack of exercise
  • Kidney disease
  • Thyroid disorders

Signs and symptoms of hypertension:

Elevated blood pressure does not always show signs and symptoms. Some people with high blood pressure don’t even know about that.

Potential signs and symptoms are:

  • Headache
  • Ringing or buzzing in the ears
  • Fatigue
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Confusion or dizziness
  • Nosebleed
  • Blurred vision
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Chest pain

Nursing care plan:

When a patient is diagnosed with hypertension, following nursing assessment, diagnosis and implementation can be made to reduce blood pressure. Here, you will get complete information on how to make a diagnosis and nursing care plan for a patient with hypertension based on NANDA guidelines:

Nursing Diagnosis

Risk of decreased cardiac output.

Acute pain (mainly headache)

 Activity intolerance

Ineffective coping

Imbalance nutrition: more than body requirements

In compliance with the treatment regimen

Nursing assessment:

1.       Assess the patient for compromised blood circulation

2.       Monitor vital signs

3.       Check all the lab reports, e.g., ABGs, cardiac markers, electrolytes, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen.

4.       Auscultate heart sounds.

5.       Note the quality of peripheral pulses

NANDA nursing diagnosis:

Risk of decreased cardiac output

Related to:

Vasoconstriction increased cerebral blood pressure

Evidenced by:

Evidence of risk is not available. It is done to decrease the likelihood of disease.

 

Desired outcome:

1.       Maintaining blood pressure within an appropriate range

2.       Introducing activities that help in reducing blood pressure

3.       Patient’s rate and rhythm will be in the normal range of nursing nursing nursing

Nursing intervention Rationale
Monitor blood pressure from arm and legs both in sitting, standing, lying position, at rest and after activity, pulse rate, peripheral pulse pressure It will help in establishing baseline data for evaluating the progress of nursing care plan at the end.
Provide calm and rest periods. Reduce environmental noise. It promotes relaxation and assists.
Assist the patient in self-care activities to conserve energy Less physical stress affects blood pressure.
Provide comfort measures like massage and head, and neck elevation It will ease the patient and reduce stress.
Administer medication as indicated. It includes beta-blockers, diuretics, etc. It will help in lowering blood pressure.

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